Sprinklers are used in fixed fire protection systems: Wet, Dry, Deluge and Preaction. System design and installation of these sprinklers are often governed by the published standards of NFPA or the approving authority having jurisdiction.

The selection of sprinklers is determined by the orifice size, temperature rating, deflector style and sprinkler spacing. Standard upright sprinklers are normally used with exposed piping installation whereby water is distributed in a lateral and downward pattern. While standard pendent are used where the space above the piping is not adequate or where a concealed piping installation is employed and the discharge characteristics are identical to the upright sprinklers.

Conventional sprinklers are designed to distribute water discharge upwards as well as downwards. They may be installed in either an upright or pendent position.

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